Canada is complicit in a “race-based genocide” against indigenous women, a government inquiry has found.
The report cited research finding indigenous women were 12 times more likely to be killed or to disappear than other women in Canada.
The inquiry blamed the crisis on deep-rooted colonialism and state inaction.
Among more than 200 recommendations is a call for all Canadians to help end violence, including by learning indigenous history.
The 1,200-page document released Monday is the culmination of almost three years of hearings and research by the inquiry into disproportionate violence faced by indigenous women and girls in Canada.
“Despite their different circumstances and backgrounds, all of the missing and murdered are connected by economic, social, and political marginalisation, racism and misogyny woven into the fabric of Canadian society,” said Marion Buller, chief commissioner of the inquiry.
It cost C$92m ($67m; £53m), and heard from more than 2,000 witnesses since 2017 – including survivors of violence and family members.
What’s the background?
Mr Trudeau’s government launched the national inquiry in September 2016, after years of calls for one by indigenous and international organisations.
Notable cases of missing or murdered indigenous women and girls had fuelled the call for a national inquiry, including the Vancouver murders by Robert Pickton, and the death of schoolgirl Tina Fontaine.
In 2015, a landmark Truth and Reconciliation report into the legacy of residential schools in Canada issued a damning verdict – that the policy amounted to “cultural genocide”.
Monday’s document takes that finding a step further saying that the murder and disappearance indigenous women and girls over the past few decades has amounted to a “race-based genocide of indigenous peoples”.
How was Canada found to be complicit?
The report found that “persistent and deliberate human and indigenous rights violations and abuses are the root cause behind Canada’s staggering rates of violence”.
Past inquiries and investigations in Canada – from the 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples to the more recent Truth and Reconciliation report – have put forward about 900 wide-ranging recommendations to deal with many of the underlying issues.
Many have never been applied.
“One of the family members’ and survivors’ biggest fears in opening themselves up to this process as intense as this one is that in the end, nothing is done – the report gathers dust on a shelf and the recommendations are left unanswered,” the final report said.